Published Research

Basurto, Xavier, Gordon Kingsley, Kelly McQueen, Mshadoni Smith, and Christopher M. Weible. 2010. “A Systematic Approach to Institutional Analysis: Applying Crawford and Ostrom’s Grammar.” Political Research Quarterly 63(3): 523.53.

Carter, David P., Christopher M. Weible, Saba N. Siddiki, John Brett, and Sara Miller Chonaiew. 2015. “Assessing Policy Divergence: How to Investigate the Difference Between a Law and a Corresponding Regulation.” Public Administration 93(1): 159-176.

Carter, David P., Christopher M. Weible, Saba N. Siddiki, and Xavier Basurto. 2016. “Integrating Core Concepts from the Institutional Analysis and Development Framework for the Systematic Analysis of Policy Designs: An Illustration from the U.S. National Organic Farming Regulation.” Journal of Theoretical Politics 28 (1): 159-185.

Clement, Sarah, Susan A. Moore, and Michael Lockwood. 2015. “Authority, Responsibility, and Process in Australian Biodiversity Policy.” Environmental and Planning Law Journal 32(2): 93-114.

Crawford, Sue E.S. and Elinor Ostrom. 1995. “A Grammar of Institutions.” American Political Science Review 89(3): 582-600.

Dunlop, Claire A., Jonathan C. Kamkhaji, and Claudio M. Radaelli. 2019. “A Sleeping Giant Awakes? The Rise of the Institutional Grammar Tool (IGT) in Policy Research.” Journal of Chinese Governance. DOI:

Feiock, Richard C., Christopher M. Weible, David P. Carter, Cali Curley, Aaron DeSlatte, and Tanya Heikkila. 2014. “Capturing Structural and Functional Diversity Through Institutional Analysis.” Urban Affairs Review 52(1): 129-150.

Frantz, Christopher K., Martin K. Purvis, Bastin Tony Roy Savarimuthu, and Mariusz Nowostawski. 2015. “Modeling Dynamic Normative Understanding in Agent Societies.” Scalable Computing: Practice and Experience 16(4): 355-378. DOI:

Ghorbani, Amineh, and Giangiacomo Bravo. 2016. “Managing the Commons: A Simple Model of the Emergence of Institutions through Collective Action.” International Journal of the Commons 10(1): 200-219.

Heikkila, T. and Weible, C.M., 2018. A semiautomated approach to analyzing polycentricity. Environmental Policy and Governance28(4), pp.308-318.

Lien, Aaron M., Edella Schlager, Ashly Lona. 2018. “Using Institutional Grammar to Improve Understanding of the Form and Function of Payment for Ecosystem Services Programs” Ecosystem Services 31, Part A: 21-31. DOI:

Novo, Paula, and Garrido, Alberto. 2014. “From Policy Design to Implementation: An Institutional Analysis of the New Nicaraguan Water Law” Water Policy 17(1): 105-126.

Roditis, Maria L., Donna Wang, Stanton Glantz, and Amanda Fallin. 2015. “Evaluating California Campus Tobacco Policies Using the American College Health Association Guidelines and the Institutional Grammar Tool.” Journal of American College Health 63(1): 57-67. DOI:

Schlüter, Achim, and Insa Theesfeld. 2010. The Grammar of Institutions: The Challenge of Distinguishing Between Strategies, Norms, and Rules. Rationality and Society 22 (4):445-475. DOI:

Siddiki, Saba, Tanya Heikkila, Christopher M. Weible, Raul Pacheco-Vega, David Carter, Cali Curley, Aaron Deslatte, Abby Bennett. 2019. “Institutional Analysis with the Institutional Grammar.” Policy Studies Journal. DOI:

Siddiki, Saba. 2014. “Assessing Policy Design and Interpretation: An Institutions-Based Analysis in the Context of Aquaculture in Florida and Virginia, United States.” Review of Policy Research 31 (4): 281-303. DOI:

Siddiki, Saba, Christopher M. Weible, Xavier Basurto, and John Calanni. 2011. “Dissecting Policy Designs: An Application of the Institutional Grammar Tool.” Policy Studies Journal 39(1): 79-103. DOI:

Siddiki, Saba, and Suzann Lupton. 2016. “Assessing Nonprofit Rule Interpretation and Compliance.” Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly 45(4S): 156S-174S. DOI:

Siddiki, Saba, Xavier Basurto, Christopher M. Weible. 2012. “Using the Institutional Grammar Tool to Understand Regulatory Compliance: The Case of Colorado Aquaculture.” Regulation & Governance 6 (2): 167-188. DOI:

Smajgl, Alex, Luis R. Izquierdo, and Marco Huigen. 2008 “Modeling Endogenous Rule Exchanges in an Institutional Context: The Adico Sequence.” Advances in Complex Systems 11(2): 199-215. DOI:

Watkins, Cristy, and Lynn M. Wesphal. 2015. “People Don’t Talk in Institutional Statements: A Methodological Case Study of the Institutional Analysis and Development Framework” Policy Studies Journal 44: 98S-122S. DOI:

Watkins, Cristy, Lynne M. Westphal, Paul H. Gobster, Joanna Vining, and Alaka Wali et al. 2015. “Shared Principles of Restoration Practice in the Chicago Wilderness Region.” Human Ecology 21(1): 155-177.

Weible, Christopher M., and David P. Carter. 2015. “The Composition of Policy Change: Colorado’s 1977 and 2006 Smoking Bans” Policy Sciences 48(2): 207-231.
DOI: 10.1007/s11077-015-9217-x

Garcia, M., Koebele, E., Deslatte, A., Ernst, K., Manago, K., Treuer, G. (2019). Towards Urban Water Sustainability: Analyzing Management Transitions in Miami, Las Vegas, and Los Angeles. Global Environmental Change, 58, 1–24.